Record Companies – Just Music

I first heard about Just Music thanks to Honeyroot, the short-lived but brilliant chillout spin-off from Heaven 17. Just Music turns out to have a small but impressive selection of ambient, leftfield, electronic, and off-beat artists to its name.

Apart from Honeyroot, their most famous acts include the now-legendary Jon Hopkins, Marconi Union, and Leo Abrahams. Hopkins, of course, has hit the higher reaches of the charts globally, although he seems to have also wandered onto bigger record labels in the process.

But small family record companies are really well worth celebrating. Just Music can be found here:

Coming soon – Record Companies

There are, of course, certain record companies that illicit the response of a highly collectible artist. There’s something about the consistency of their roster of musicians, or perhaps they’re just a little more daring than all the major labels.

So in this new series, we will celebrate a selection of the world’s finest, most intriguing, and oddest record companies. Stay tuned!

History of the UK Charts – Albums

How do you define an album? Nowadays, it’s surprisingly straightforward – it’s essentially anything with a dealer price of over £3.75, but until the long-player first appeared in 1948, it would have been much more difficult to define, and so nobody really made the distinction. The earliest music sales charts were, therefore, not broken into singles, EPs, and albums, and in fact, in the 1950s, between 1956 and 1959, five long-players appear to have turned up on the singles charts that we now consider official. But in fact, by 1956, there was actually already a dedicated chart for albums.

Record Mirror

Whereas NME had launched the UK Single chart four years earlier, it was Record Mirror who gave us the first Album chart in July 1956. Their singles chart had launched the preceding year, and had already grown from a Top 10 to a Top 20 when they launched their first Top 5 Album chart.

This was the only album chart for two and a half years, always a Top 5. After that, there appears to be little record online, but it seems likely that it ran for six years in total, retiring in March 1962, when Record Mirror chose to switch to the Record Retailer charts instead.

As discussed previously in this series of posts, the compilers of the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles made a couple of decisions that might be considered questionable, but for me, none is odder than their decision to ignore the first two years of album charts. Somehow I suspect it may have just slipped their attention, but they count the Melody Maker chart as the first official chart. The Official Charts Company has now remedied this oversight, and includes the early Record Mirror charts as canonical – here’s that first ever UK Album Chart.

Melody Maker

Melody Maker had been UK chart pioneers a decade earlier, when they launched their Top Songs chart for sheet music, and in November 1958, they launched the Top 10 Albums chart. South Pacific was number one pretty much forever.

Oddly, NME never seems to have published an album chart, and few people seem to really care about the Melody Maker chart, and so unlike the early days of the UK Single Chart, the albums are largely free of controversy.

Record Retailer, and The Official Chart

From March 1960 onwards, everyone seems to agree that the canonically official Album Chart is the one published in Record Retailer, which steadily grew from a Top 10 to a Top 40 by the end of the decade. Then, in 1969, the British Market Research Bureau (BMRB) took over compilation. Budget albums (nowadays defined as albums with a dealer price between £0.50 and £3.75) were intermittently allowed to enter the chart.

Also confusing is the size of the chart – Record Retailer launched their Top 10 in March 1960, quickly increasing to a Top 20, then growing to a Top 30 in April 1966, and a Top 40 later that same year. Then BMRB launched their chart in February 1969 as a Top 15, growing to a Top 30 a couple of weeks later, and then fluctuating wildly between a Top 15 and a Top 77 for the next couple of years. Both Record Mirror and Record Retailer were republishing these charts, leading to a different-sized chart every week at one point.

Finally, in January 1971, the chart appeared to have settled down to a regular Top 50, but then a newspaper strike between February and March led to no album chart for six weeks. Budget Albums then rejoined the main chart for a while in 1971.

From 1975, the chart size started to settle down somewhat, with a regular Top 50, sometimes with a few extra places published, which grew to a Top 75 in December 1978. In 1981, this grew again, to a Top 100, where it stayed until January 1989, when Compilation Albums were removed to a separate chart, and the main chart shrunk to a Top 75.

On the Radio

The album charts have a complex broadcasting history. Back in the 1970s, BBC Radio 1 was counting down highlights on Thursdays from 12.45pm, switching in the 1980s to Wednesday evenings, when Peter Powell and Bruno Brookes would take over. In October 1987, Gary Davies started counting them down on Monday lunchtimes, and then for a brief six-month stint in mid-1993, Lynn Parsons presented the Album Chart Show, an hour-long show containing highlights from top albums, which followed the main chart show.

From October 1993, this was incorporated into the official chart show at 5.30pm every week, when the top 30 albums were counted down, and a track from the highest new entry would be played.

From October 2001 to April 2007, Simon Mayo presented a new album chart show on BBC Radio 2, but this eventually dropped out too, and the chart fell off air for a number of years. Today, it’s again included as part of the official chart show, in its diminutive Friday afternoon slot.

Next time: this series is going to take a bit of a break while I research the next few, before returning to explore the lower reaches of the charts.

This series of posts owes a lot to the following sources which weren’t directly credited above:

History of the UK Charts – Singles (Part 2)

As will become clear from this series of posts, the UK’s Official Charts Company has a slightly strange code around what is and isn’t considered an official chart. From 1969 onwards, despite some slightly confusing recent attempts at revisionism, we can pretty much all agree on what is and isn’t official. But the first seventeen years of the chart are rather more complex, and have tended to cause a degree of controversy among chart watchers.

Much of the blame for this can be given to The Guinness Book of British Hit Singles, compiled by Paul Gambaccini, Mike Read, Tim Rice and Jo Rice, and published to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first chart in July 1977.

We can all agree that the NME Top 12 was the first published chart, starting in November 1952, which had grown to a Top 30 by the end of the 1950s, but for British Hit Singles, the decision was made to stop using that chart in March 1960, and switch to Record Retailer’s Top 50.

This has disadvantaged certain releases, perhaps most famously The Beatles‘ Please Please Me, which hit the top spot on the NME chart in March 1963, but only got to number two on the now-canonical Record Retailer chart. But the crux of the controversy appears to twofold: NME had a much higher circulation, so was better known by the public; and the size of the sample it used to compile charts was much larger – NME was sampling around 100 retailers, whereas Record Retailer was only sampling around 30.

The counter-argument, which doesn’t appear to be given often, is that of course Record Retailer (later renamed Music Week) was a trade magazine, established by record labels and dealers in August 1959, and so while its distribution was naturally smaller, its reputation should have been more solid. Their chart also seems to have been audited by slightly more reliable (and external) sources than other publications. Also, by March 1962, Record Mirror was also carrying these charts, surely increasing their reputation further still?

But neither the NME nor Record Retailer chart was, of course, really official at the time, the most recognised charts were really the ones in the publications that sold the most. But once British Hit Singles had decided what was official, that decision stuck, and now even the Official Charts Company follows that standard too.

Record Retailer

Record Retailer was launched as the trade magazine for independent record retailers, from August 1959, and when it switched the following year from being a monthly to weekly publication, it also started its own chart. Although published using returns from a small number of retailers (around 30), they produced the largest chart yet, a Top 50, and it was technically superior – it used postal returns, and whereas their competitors allowed tied positions, the Record Retailer chart compared the rate of change in sales to declare an absolute leader.

Crucially, Record Retailer’s chart was also independently audited, meaning that at least within the music business, it could be considered to have a degree of authority. This didn’t mean it was immune to abuse, though, as numerous accounts exist of record companies employing people to bulk-buy records.

Niche Charts and Reconciliation

It should come as little surprise that by the early 1960s, pretty much everybody had their own charts. The pirate radio stations were making charts up for themselves, and Merseybeat each launched one of their own in 1962. Within five years, one had merged into another publication, and the other had ceased to exist. 1962 also saw Record Mirror give up on its own chart, and start carrying the Record Retailer chart. Disc & Music Echo continued until 1967 before winding down its chart.

Modern-day chart watchers make laboured but persuasive arguments for regarding the NME chart as more official than the Record Retailer one during this period. The Official Charts Company rightly accepted the decision of the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles to use the Record Retailer ones, but at the same time, NME’s was very popular, Melody Maker’s was also widely used, and the Pick of the Pops chart was very well known.

This came to a head in August 1968, when the BBC’s points-based system led to a three-way tie at number one, between The Bee GeesThe Beach Boys, and Herb Alpert. They started working with Record Retailer to develop a new, official chart.

The Official Chart

From February 1969 onwards, there is no argument about which one the “official” chart is, as the British Market Research Bureau (BMRB) took over compilation of the charts, which were used by Record Retailer, Record Mirror, and BBC Radio 1. NME and Melody Maker were invited to take part, but the high costs of collecting a reliable chart appear to have prevented them from joining.

It had its teething problems – notably, the early BMRB charts contained multiple tied positions. It was initially compiled as a Top 50, although during a newspaper strike from February to March 1971, only a Top 40 was published (and a Top 20 broadcast on BBC Radio 1), and a postal strike in early 1973 led to only a Top 30 being published. This led to BMRB using motorcycle couriers to collect sales data, and by the mid-1970s it was well accepted as the official UK chart.

Apart from those blips, the chart remained a Top 50 until May 1978, when it grew to a Top 75 while BBC Radio 1 started taking interest in the Top 40. The chart remained a Top 75 until the 2012 relaunch of the Official Charts Company website, when they started listing the Top 100 Singles as official.

The compilers have changed, and the rules have changed many times, but for the last fifty years, the official UK chart has remained the most widely recognised source of information about musical successes in the UK.

On the Radio

Radio Luxembourg had been broadcasting charts for several years by this stage, starting with sheet music charts, then switching to the NME Top 20 until July 1965, when they worked with NME to use their Friday chart. In spring 1967, Paul Burnett replaced this with an airplay chart, but they were losing ground to the BBC. From 1970, they tried to predict the next week’s charts instead, and saw varying degrees of success.

The BBC Light Programme’s Pick of the Pops show had been broadcasting various charts from September 1957 onwards. In March 1958, David Jacobs started using a points-based system to combine the charts, counting them down live. Alan Freeman took over, still using the same system and overseeing the show’s move to Sunday nights and then later to BBC Radio 1 in October 1967. The show started using the new official BMRB chart at some point after it launched in February 1969.

Pick of the Pops was replaced by Tom Browne‘s Solid Gold Sixty in October 1972, featuring highlights and the full Top 20. Simon Bates took over in April 1978, who saw the show extended to a two hour show playing the full Top 40, before passing on the baton to Tony Blackburn the following year.

Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, Tommy VanceRichard SkinnerBruno Brookes, and Mark Goodier took the helm, as the show grew to two-and-a-half and then three hours. This, the iconic format remained, fronted by Wes ButtersJK and JoelFearne CottonReggie YatesJameela Jamil, and Clara Amfo until it finally left the Sunday slot.

The Chart Show moved to Friday afternoons in July 2015, with Greg James taking over as presenter, and then Scott Mills jumped into the role more recently.

Next time: the birth of the UK Album Chart.

This series of posts owes a lot to the following sources which weren’t directly credited above:

History of the UK Charts – Singles (Part 1)

The sixty-seven year history of the official UK Singles Chart is complex, in part because its first seventeen years weren’t actually official. From 1952 to 1955, there was just one chart, so we can all agree that the NME chart should be regarded as “canonical” now – but from 1955 to 1969, you could choose between at least two, and sometimes as many as four or five, and it’s really up to you which you prefer.

This was, of course, an era when many record companies still ran their own shops (which explains how HMV seemed to have switched from company to retailer at some point) and were only just getting the hang of selling each other’s releases. Initially, the choices of chart were fairly simple – NME, Record Mirror, Melody Maker, and Disc & Music Echo all had their own charts, and you probably just preferred the one that was published in your favourite publication. By the 1960s, though, things got a lot more complicated.

So for this week, let’s focus on the 1950s, when somewhere between 12 and 60 of the UK’s best selling releases were catalogued every week in various publications.

The First Charts

The UK’s first recognised chart was published on 14th November 1952 in New Musical Express (NME). Supposedly, the management of the newspaper contacted a number of shops and built a list of 53 who were willing to share sales data. Their then advertising manager Percy Dickins phoned a selection of around 15 to 25 stores every Monday to gather sales data. Each store would provide their top ten records, and Dickins would then use a point-based system to compile this into a single chart, which appeared as a Top 12 on initial publication.

Just over two years later, on 22nd January 1955, a second publication launched a chart, as Record Mirror started publishing a Top 10. Starting with a sample of 24 stores, it quickly grew to 60, and the chart grew in size too. The following year, Melody Maker followed suit, publishing a singles chart alongside its Top Tunes sheet music chart, based initially on returns from 19 stores, crucially including sales from Northern Ireland for the first time. In 1958, Disc & Music Echo launched its chart, a Top 20 based on returns from 25 stores, and from the following year became the first to award gold and silver discs for particularly high sellers.

But by the start of the 1960s, NME’s chart was probably the best known. Its sample size had grown to around 50-60, and charts were being syndicated to Billboard for publication in the USA. It was published by a number of regional newspapers, and broadcast weekly on Radio Luxembourg.

Record Mirror’s chart also held some sway, sometimes sampling more than 60 retailers and apparently published by more newspapers than any other, while the other two initial competitors put fewer resources into their operations.

By the end of the 1950s, there was a fifth chart, broadcast on BBC Light Programme’s Pick of the Pops – this used a points-based system to combine all four of the contemporary charts, and due to the size of the listenership, was better known by some than its contributors.

So during the course of the 1950s, the UK had gone from no music charts to four major ones already, competing to be the best regarded. Which would take its place as the official chart? Well, none of them, actually, as we’ll find out next week.

On the Radio

As we explored last week, Radio Luxembourg had been broadcasting sheet music charts for several years before the sales charts started, and they didn’t switch until the end of 1959, when they started broadcasting the NME Top 20.

Replacing the previous Hit Parade show, the BBC Light Programme started its Pick of the Pops show in 1955, and from September 1957 onwards, presenter Alan Dell started reading out the various charts and playing highlights. More details on that next week.

Next time: part 2 of our exploration of the UK Singles Chart.

This series of posts owes a lot to the following sources which weren’t directly credited above:

History of the UK Charts – The Early Years

Growing up, as you and I did, in the UK in the 1980s or 1990s, you can’t have escaped the charts. Nothing could beat the excitement of turning on BBC Radio 1 on a Sunday, late afternoon, and hearing someone counting down the Top 40, mispronouncing all of your favourite stars as you found out who would make the top spot.

Of course, these days, the charts are nowhere near as exciting (as we all know, most things used to be better in some way), and the UK has about a hundred different genre and format charts to digest. But long before you or I ever took an interest in the charts, their early roots were a whole lot more complex than you would imagine.

Top Tunes

Unfortunately the vast majority of British music publications are now long lost in history, but Melody Maker should be one of the most famous. It ran for nearly 75 years in the UK, before being merged into its competitor NME. It launched in January 1926, and around 1942 published its first Top Tunes chart.

Top Tunes chronicled something that may seem somewhat alien these days – sales of sheet music. Prior to that, BBC Radio seems to have also briefly flirted with a sheet music chart as early as 1936. Initially published irregularly, and in alphabetical order, the Top Tunes list finally settled down as a formal chart in July 1946.

Sheet music had been a key source of revenue as the music business started to take shape in the late 19th century, and while phonographs and gramophones rose quickly in popularity, the speed of 78 rpm for records was only formally set around 1925, and electrical recording only started in 1926. Then the Great Depression hit, and the nascent record industry went into rapid decline, but jukeboxes appear to have continued to grow in popularity.

Shellac gave way to vinyl as the record material of choice during the 1930s, and after the end of the Second World War, the familiar 33 1⁄3 and 45 rpm formats appeared, and consumption of music on record started to take over.

But in fact, the Top Tunes list survived into the 1980s, and some later sources have even used its early years as a guide to what music was popular before the charts formally launched, but this seems a little misguided to me.

The Billboard Chart

Billboard was the US entertainment industry’s trade magazine, launching in 1896, and by the 1930s had shifted its focus to primarily cover music. Billboard had, of course, published a much earlier sheet music chart, starting around 1913 with the catchily named Last Week’s Best Sellers Among The Popular Songs, renamed to Sheet Music Leaders in March 1936.

They were also responsible for the first chart chronicling the popularity of music consumption, starting with the Songs Heard in Vaudeville Last Week chart, also launched around 1913. In 1936, Billboard launched what appears to be the world’s first hit parade, published in January 1936. In July 1940, this became the Music Popularity Chart, which was replaced in 1958 by the Hot 100, celebrating its sixtieth anniversary just a couple of months ago. Here’s that first chart.

The Missing Charts

One of the most intriguing developments in the history of the early UK charts only occurred in 2013, which was the publication of a book called The Missing Charts 1940-1952. It is, naturally, of niche interest, since no charts were actually published during this period, but the book’s claim is that actual sales figures were being collected and catalogued – they just weren’t being published anywhere.

The individual responsible was Colin Brown, a music business professional who had passed away in 2012. Apparently some time around 1948, he asked an arcade owner to add a record of his own by Nat Gonella to their jukebox, and noticed that this record quickly became the most played on the jukebox. The operator of the jukeboxes was compiling a weekly “Most Played” list from their entire system, and this gave him the idea of compiling a chart based on sales. He started gathering and cataloguing order sheets from record companies, who gave him access to historical data, enabling him to work his way back to 1940. When the NME chart started in 1952, he saw no reason to continue his own records, and stopped.

If The Missing Charts 1940-1952 is to be believed, these charts, based on lists of shop orders rather than sales had been languishing in storage for nearly sixty years, awaiting publication. The only slight problem is that with no empirical evidence, a cheap looking website, and a book that no longer seems to be available, it all seems too good to be true.

On the Radio

Radio Luxembourg, groundbreaking as always, started the UK’s first sheet music chart show on 1st October 1948, when Teddy Johnson would play a randomly selected version of each song on the chart. This continued for eleven years, before finally switching to the NME Top 20, before switching sources a number of times over the following years. The first number one was Galway Bay, sung at the time by Josef Locke in this clip.

Just a couple of months later, the BBC Light Programme started their Hit Parade show, launching on Tuesday nights from 4th January 1949. A selection of artists would perform the top selling sheet music hits. This ran until 1957, when it was replaced by Pick of the Pops.

Next time: the birth of the UK Single Chart.

This series of posts owes a lot to the following sources which weren’t directly credited above:

Coming soon – History of the UK Charts

I am, as we’ve probably established over the preceding 2,066 posts on this blog, the kind of person who goes off in their spare time and does things like researching the history of the UK charts – singles, albums, and everything in between. It turned out to be pretty interesting, and seems to me to be the sort of thing that you shouldn’t keep to yourself, so starting around this time next week I’m going to share my research with you. Hopefully you’ll find it as interesting as I did.